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Should primary and ESL teachers use an English alphabet that has the 44 or so phonemes that the language has?
“44 or so”.
And there’s your problem.
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The vowels in Received Pronunciation group as:
(tɹæp) (bɑːθ pɑːm) (lɒt klɒθ) (θɔːt)
They group the same way in Australian English, though as
(tɹæp) (bɐːθ pɐːm) (lɔt klɔθ) (θoːt)
The vowels in General American, however, group as:
(tɹæp bæθ) (pɑːm lɑːt) (klɔːθ θɔːt)
You can do that, and teach the phonology of only one dialect—but at the expense of having to reteach them an intradialectal phonology later; in effect, you’d be reinventing English spelling.