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What is the difference between Cretan, Cypriot, Asia Minor (mostly Lydian and Trojan), Mycenaean, Classical, Hellenic, Hellenistic, and Modern Greeks?
Different regions and/or time periods of Greek culture. Not all of them involving ethnic Greeks.
- Mycenaean: Greek culture of 1500–1200 BC. Associated with the site of Mycenae.
- Cretan: Culture of Crete. No timeframe. Initially non-Hellenic.
- Cypriot. Culture of Cyprus. No timeframe. Initially non-Hellenic.
- Rhodian. Culture of Rhodes. No timeframe.
- Asia Minor. Culture of Asia Minor. No timeframe. Different bits Hellenised at different times. The Lydians and Trojans and Cilicians (whoever they were—likely Hittite) were not Hellenic. The Pontians were not initially Hellenic.
- Classical. Greek culture of 600–300 BC.
- Hellenistic. Greek culture of 300–50 BC. A lot of Hellenistic culture was superposed on people nothing to do with Greek ethnicity:
- Bactrian. Modern Afghanistan.
- Indo-Greek. Modern Pakistan.
- Ptolemaic. Modern Egypt.
- Seleucid. Modern Syria, Palestine, Turkey.
- Byzantine. 300 AD-1500 AD Eastern Roman Empire, whose main language was Greek.
- Modern Greeks. Greek culture of modern times. Let’s not get into DNA.
- Hellenic. Greek.